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There was still no permanent set of coronation regalia; each monarch generally had a new set made, with which he or she was usually buried upon death.
In the earliest known depiction of an English king wearing a crown, he is shown presenting a copy of Bede 's Life of St Cuthbert to the saint himself.
Whether or not they wore such an item is questionable. Edward the Confessor is depicted on a throne and wearing a crown and holding a sceptre in the first scene of the Bayeux Tapestry.
In , Edward the Confessor was made a saint, and objects connected with his reign became holy relics.
The monks at his burial place of Westminster Abbey claimed that Edward had asked them to look after his regalia in perpetuity and that they were to be used at the coronations of all future kings.
In centuries to come, it would expand to include, among other objects, an orb and a pair of armills or bracelets traditionally worn by the monarch at coronations.
Being crowned and invested with regalia owned by a previous monarch who was also a saint reinforced the king's authority. Few descriptions survive, although one 17th-century historian noted that it was "ancient Work with Flowers, adorn'd with Stones of somewhat a plain setting",  and an inventory described it as "gold wire-work set with slight stones and two little bells", weighing 2.
Together with other crowns, rings, and swords, it comprised the monarch's state regalia that were kept separate from the coronation regalia, mostly at the royal palaces.
The transferring of crowns symbolised the transfer of power between rulers. According to the Chronicle of Aberconwy Abbey , "and so the glory of Wales and the Welsh was handed over to the kings of England".
Monarchs often pledged various items of state regalia as collateral for loans throughout the Middle Ages when money was short.
Sometimes objects were temporarily released from pawn by mayors, knights, peers, bankers, and other wealthy subjects in both England and continental Europe for the king to use at state occasions, then returned following the ceremony.
Kings also distributed plate and jewels in lieu of money to their troops. The traditions established in the medieval period continued later.
State regalia increasingly passed from one king to the next. Desperate for money, one of his first acts as king was to load 41 masterpieces from the Jewel House onto a ship bound for Amsterdam — the hub of Europe's jewel trade.
This hoard of unique bejewelled pieces, like the Mirror of Great Britain , a 4. Charles's many conflicts with Parliament, stemming from his belief in the divine right of kings and the many religious conflicts that pervaded his reign, triggered the English Civil War in On learning of the king's scheme, both Houses of Parliament declared traffickers of the Crown Jewels to be enemies of the state.
After six years of war, Charles was defeated and executed in Less than a week after the king's execution, the Rump Parliament voted to abolish the monarchy.
The newly created English Republic found itself short of money. Two nuptial crowns , the Crown of Margaret of York and the Crown of Princess Blanche , survived as they had been taken out of England centuries before the Civil War by Margaret and Blanche when they married kings in continental Europe.
Both crowns and the 9th-century Alfred Jewel give a sense of the character of royal jewellery in England in the Middle Ages.
It was marked by a ceremony in Westminster Hall in , where he donned purple robes, sat on the Coronation Chair, and was invested with many traditional symbols of sovereignty, except a crown.
These karat gold objects,  made in and , form the nucleus of the Crown Jewels today: A medieval silver-gilt anointing spoon and three swords survived and were returned to the Crown,  and the Dutch ambassador arranged for extant jewels pawned in Holland to be brought back.
In , the Jewels went on public display for the first time in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. The Deputy Keeper of the Jewel House took the regalia out of a cupboard and showed it to visitors for a small fee.
Blood and his three accomplices were apprehended at the castle perimeter, but the crown had been flattened with a mallet in an attempt to conceal it, and there was a dent in the orb.
Since the Restoration, there have been many additions and alterations to the regalia. Crowns are the main symbols of royal authority.
Most of them also have a red or purple velvet cap and an ermine border. The centrepiece of the coronation regalia is named after Edward the Confessor and is placed on the monarch's head at the moment of crowning by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
It is embellished with stones, including amethysts , garnets , peridots , rubies , sapphires , topazes , tourmalines and zircons. A much lighter crown is worn by the monarch when leaving Westminster Abbey, and at the annual State Opening of Parliament.
At the back of the crown is the carat Originally set with hired diamonds and pearls, it is now set with crystals and cultured pearls for display in the Jewel House along with a matching diadem that consorts wore in procession to the Abbey.
The diadem once held diamonds, 1 ruby, 1 sapphire, and 1 emerald. Thus began a tradition of each queen consort having a crown made specially for her.
Set with over 3, diamonds, it was the first consort crown to include the Koh-i-Noor diamond presented to Queen Victoria in following the British conquest of the Punjab.
In , both stones and the Koh-i-Noor were replaced with crystal replicas and the arches were made detachable so it could be worn as an open crown.
It also contains a replica of the The crown was laid on top of Elizabeth's coffin during her lying in state and funeral in In contrast to the earlier coronet, which has a depressed arch, the arch on this one is raised.
At George's own coronation in , the coronet was worn by his son, Edward, the next Prince of Wales. In its absence, another coronet had to be made for the investiture of Prince Charles in In the Jewel House there are two crowns that were not intended to be used at a coronation.
After the queen's death in , Queen Alexandra wore the crown, and it was also worn by Queen Mary. Since the British constitution prohibits the removal of Crown Jewels from the United Kingdom, a new crown had to be made for the event, with emeralds, rubies, sapphires and 6, diamonds.
It has not been used since and is now a part of the Crown Jewels. A coronation begins with the procession into Westminster Abbey. Two other swords are used.
It is also carried before the monarch at State Openings of Parliament. Before the investiture, it is exchanged for the principal Sword of Offering, of which the Sword of State is a metaphor.
The sword has a Damascus steel blade and is set with 2, diamonds, 12 emeralds and 4 rubies. Two diamond lion heads, one at each end of the cross-piece, have ruby eyes.
It remained in personal ownership of the Royal family until when it was deposited with the Crown Jewels and has been used at every coronation since The defunct Irish Sword of State, made in , was held by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland a viceroy prior to Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom in , and also resides at the Tower of London.
Its handle takes the form of a lion and unicorn and is decorated with a celtic harp. Each new viceroy was invested with the sword at Dublin Castle , where it usually sat across the arms of a throne, representing the king or queen.
It was borne in procession in front of the viceroy and monarchs upon their official visits to Dublin. It was displayed at Dublin Castle from September until April as part of the 'Making Majesty' exhibition — the first time it had been to Ireland in 95 years.
It has a plain monde and cross at the top and a steel pike at the bottom. The Crown Jewels include 16 silver trumpets dating from between and Beginning as lethal weapons of medieval knights, maces evolved into ceremonial objects carried by sergeants-at-arms and now represent a monarch's authority.
One is placed on the Woolsack before the house meets and is absent when a monarch is there in person. Two of these are carried in the royal procession at State Openings of Parliament and coronations.
Each mace is about 1. When a monarch is anointed, the Dean of Westminster pours holy anointing oil from an ampulla into a spoon.
Its head unscrews, enabling the vessel to be filled, and the oil exits via a hole in the beak. No one is quite sure why the vessel itself came to be reinterpreted as an eagle standing on a domed base after the Restoration.
A ridge divides the bowl in half, creating grooves into which the Archbishop of Canterbury dips two fingers and anoints the monarch, confirming him or her as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
The anointing is followed by investment with coronation robes and ornaments. All the robes have priestly connotations and their form has changed little since the Middle Ages.
They are made of solid gold, richly embossed with floral patterns and scrolls, and have straps of crimson velvet embroidered in gold.
Both necks terminate in a Tudor rose with a spike at its centre. The Armills are gold bracelets of sincerity and wisdom. Each bracelet is fitted with an invisible hinge and a clasp in the form of a Tudor rose.
The hallmark includes a tiny portrait of the Queen,  who continued to wear the armills on leaving the Abbey and could be seen wearing them later, with the Imperial State Crown and Sovereign's Ring, at her appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace.
Atop the orb is an amethyst surmounted by a jewelled cross, symbolising the Christian world, with a sapphire on one side and an emerald on the other.
The orb is Before , each monarch generally received a new ring to symbolise his or her "marriage" to the nation. Around the sapphire are 14 brilliant diamonds.
The sceptre , a symbolic ornamental rod held by the monarch at a coronation, is derived from the shepherd's staff via the crozier of a bishop.
The Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross is a token of his or her temporal power as head of state. The Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove, which also has been known as the Rod of Equity and Mercy, is emblematic of his or her spiritual role.
It is a bit longer at 1. The sceptre is decorated with gemstones, including 94 diamonds, 53 rubies, 10 emeralds, 4 sapphires and 3 spinels.
At the top is a gold monde set with diamonds and topped by a plain cross, upon which sits a white enamelled dove with its wings outspread, representing the Holy Ghost.
Unlike the sovereign's dove, this one has folded wings and is relatively small. It has not been used since, and went missing for several decades, only to be found in at the back of a cupboard in the Tower of London.
Some are also used at other times. Around the edge are four engravings of biblical scenes: Two purses containing specially minted coins are taken from the dish and presented to each recipient.
Weighing over a quarter of a ton, it is the heaviest surviving piece of English banqueting plate. The Exeter Salt, a centimetre 1. Three silver-gilt objects which have been used at royal christenings are displayed in the Jewel House.
Its domed lid is surmounted by a figure of Philip the Evangelist baptising the Ethiopian eunuch. The handle of the ewer is topped by a figure of Hercules slaying the Hydra , symbolising the triumph of virtue over vice;  it stands The Crown Jewels, part of the Royal Collection ,  do not officially belong to the nation,  but are effectively public assets.
The jeweller also accompanies the regalia and plate whenever they leave the Tower, for example at State Openings of Parliament and royal christenings.
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